For many Americans, springtime is also allergy season; an estimated 20–40% of adults in America are affected by seasonal allergies. The common cold is the most common infectious disease, with an average of 2-4 infections a year in adults and even more in children. Both conditions are quite common and share some of the same symptoms, such as runny nose and stuffy nose.
But they’re different diseases. Common colds can be caused by over 200 viruses and are contagious. When you get one of these viruses, your immune system attacks it. Allergies, on the other hand, are caused by exposure to outdoor allergens such as pollen and airborne mold spores. Your body’s immune system fights pollen and other antigens similar to how it fights common cold viruses – by releasing chemicals such as histamine, which causes symptoms like runny nose and sneezing.
If you’re not sure whether you’re suffering from allergies or a cold, the following table can help.
Additionally, here are a few common differences:
- Cough, sore throat, and general aches and pains are more commonly due to colds. While cough can sometimes be due to an allergy, it’s commonly due to a cold. Other common symptoms of the common cold are sore throat and aches and pain.
- Colds can last 3-14 days, while allergies can go on for weeks. If you’re suffering for only as long as you’re exposed to an allergen, it’s probably due to allergies. Cold symptoms can last from 3 to 14 days.
- Allergies tend to reoccur at certain times of year; colds can happen year round. If your allergy symptoms occur at only certain times of the year, especially in the spring, summer and fall (when high pollen counts are common), then you might have seasonal allergies. Each of these seasons has higher counts of certain of pollen in the air. Tree pollen counts are high in spring, grass pollen in summer, and weed pollen in fall.
- Prevention is different between the two. The best way to avoid seasonal allergies is to know and avoid your allergy triggers. However, that’s not always possible. When you can, stay indoors on dry, windy days, especially mornings, when pollen counts are high. If over-the-counter allergy medications don’t work, if your symptoms are severe, or if you’re prone to secondary infections or worsening of asthma or other respiratory conditions, see your doctor. There’s no foolproof way to prevent a cold – and no way to cure it – but you can treat the symptoms.
Be sure to speak with your health care provider about your own symptoms to see if you have allergies or even a sinus problem.
Be well, stay well ~